Kyphosis and canal compromise due to refracturing of an L1 cemented vertebra managed with posterior surgery alone
- Pars Advanced and Minimally Invasive Medical Manners Research Center, Pars Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
DOI:10.25259/SNI_456_2019Copyright: © 2019 Surgical Neurology International This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-Share Alike 4.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.
How to cite this article: Abolfazl Rahimizadeh. Kyphosis and canal compromise due to refracturing of an L1 cemented vertebra managed with posterior surgery alone. 01-Nov-2019;10:212
How to cite this URL: Abolfazl Rahimizadeh. Kyphosis and canal compromise due to refracturing of an L1 cemented vertebra managed with posterior surgery alone. 01-Nov-2019;10:212. Available from: http://surgicalneurologyint.com/surgicalint-articles/9732/
Background:An already cemented vertebral body rarely refractures and its occurrence may be signaled by the reappearance of pain and/or significant vertebral collapse/kyphosis resulting in canal compromise and neurological deterioration.
Case Description:An 81-year-old male originally underwent an L1 kyphoplasty for an osteoporotic compression fracture. Nine months later, he presented with the late onset of recurrent collapse of the cemented vertebral body, leading to pain, kyphosis, and canal compromise. Surgery warranted total L1 corpectomy, reconstruction of the anterior column, and a posterior fixation through a purely posterior approach (posterior vertebral column resection [pVCR]).
Conclusion:Here, we presented the safety/efficacy of utilizing a purely posterior approach (e.g., including L1 corpectomy, reconstruction of the anterior column, and posterior fusion: pVCR) in the management of a repeated fracture of a cemented L1 vertebra resulting in kyphosis and canal compromise.
Keywords: Cemented vertebra percutaneous kyphoplasty, Percutaneous vertebroplasty, Refracture
Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) and percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP) are increasingly used to treat osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. However, one of the late, but rare complications, is the refracturing of the cemented vertebra.[
An 81-year-old male presented with a mild paraparesis of 2 months duration. Nine months before admission, he had undergone an L1 PKP for an osteoporotic fracture.
The anteroposterior (AP) thoracolumbar plain radiograph showed two symmetric kyphoplasty cement collections within the L1 vertebral body, while the lateral radiograph showed two wedge-shaped lateral compartments which were attached with a narrow medial bridge. Although the height of the anterior compartment was preserved with the PKP, the wedge-shaped posterior compartment was now significantly kyphotic and had migrated dorsally into the spinal canal resulting in significant conus/cauda equina compression [
The pVCR of the L1 vertebra first required pedicle screw fixation placed above and below the fractured L1 vertebral level. Next, an L1 corpectomy was performed to reset the previously cemented L1 vertebra followed by reconstruction of the anterior column utilizing a tibial shaft allograft [
Pathogenesis and rates of PVP and PKP refractures
Several studies have demonstrated that the increased “distance between polymethylmethacrylate and the endplate” increases the rate of refracture.[
Distribution of cement
The distribution pattern for cement is classified into two types: (1) local solid lumps or (2) the trabecular/diffuse types.[
Rates of vertebral recollapse
Recollapse of a previously cemented vertebral body most often occurs within the thoracolumbar region. Infrequently, it is seen involving the low lumbar levels and only rarely within the thoracic spine itself.[
Clinical presentation of recurrent vertebral recollapse
Clinically, the refracturing of a vertebral body following initial PKP and PVP results in recurrent localized pain and/ or progressive kyphosis with canal compromise and focal neurological deficits. This can be managed with repeated vertebroplasty (e.g., using a single Jamshidi needle).[
With the appearance of localized pain after prior PVP or PKP, or the onset of kyphosis with a neurological deficit, routine AP and lateral radiographs may document recurrent vertebral body fracture that may be managed with a posterior only technique (pVCR) that offers unique 360° spinal correction.
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