Image guidance for brain metastases resection

Sarah T. Garber, Randy L. Jensen

Date of publication: 26-Apr-2012

Abstract

The primary goal in removing a metastatic brain tumor is to maximize surgical resection while minimizing the risk of neurological injury. Intraoperative image guidance is frequently used in the resection of both primary and metastatic brain tumors. Stereotactic volumetric techniques allow for smaller craniotomies, facilitate lesion localization, and help neurosurgeons avoid eloquent structures. In turn, this leads to decreased patient morbidity and shorter hospitalizations. Image guidance is not without shortcomings, however, perhaps the most significant of which is inaccuracy of tumor resection associated with intraoperative brain shifts. The goal of this review is to expound on the uses of image guidance and discuss avoidance of technical pitfalls in the resection of cerebral metastatic lesions.

Integration of surgery and radiosurgery

Antonio De Salles, Alessandra Gorgulho, Eric Benhke

Date of publication: 26-Apr-2012

Importance of intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging for pediatric brain tumor surgery

Jawad Yousaf, Shivaram Avula, Laurence J. Abernethy, Conor L. Mallucci

Date of publication: 26-Apr-2012

Background:High-field intraoperative MRI (IoMRI) is gaining increasing recognition as an invaluable tool in pediatric brain tumor surgery where the extent of tumor resection is a major prognostic factor. We report the initial experience of a dedicated pediatric 3-T intraoperative MRI (IoMRI) unit with integrated neuronavigation in the management of pediatric brain tumors.

Application of image guidance in pituitary surgery

Danielle de Lara, Leo F. S. Ditzel Filho, Daniel M. Prevedello, Bradley A. Otto, Ricardo L. Carrau

Date of publication: 26-Apr-2012

Background:Surgical treatment of pituitary pathologies has evolved along the years, adding safety and decreasing morbidity related to the procedure. Advances in the field of radiology, coupled with stereotactic technology and computer modeling, have culminated in the contemporary and widespread use of image guidance systems, as we know them today. Image guidance navigation has become a frequently used technology that provides continuous three-dimensional information for the accurate performance of neurosurgical procedures. We present a discussion about the application of image guidance in pituitary surgeries.

Comprehensive review of stereotactic radiosurgery for medically and surgically refractory pituitary adenomas

Won Kim, Claire Clelland, Isaac Yang, Nader Pouratian

Date of publication: 26-Apr-2012

Abstract

Despite advances in surgical techniques and medical therapies, a significant proportion of pituitary adenomas remain endocrinologically active, demonstrate persistent radiographic disease, or recur when followed for long periods of time. While surgical intervention remains the first-line therapy, stereotactic radiosurgery is increasingly recognized as a viable treatment option for these often challenging tumors. In this review, we comprehensively review the literature to evaluate both endocrinologic and radiographic outcomes of radiosurgical management of pituitary adenomas. The literature clearly supports the use of radiosurgery, with endocrinologic remission rates and time to remission varying by tumor type [prolactinoma: 20–30%, growth hormone secreting adenomas: ~50%, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-secreting adenomas: 40–65%] and radiographic control rates almost universally greater than 90% with long-term follow-up. We stratify the outcomes by tumor type, review the importance of prognostic factors (particularly, pre-treatment endocrinologic function and tumor size), and discuss the complications of treatment (with special attention to endocrinopathy and visual complications). We conclude that the literature supports the use of radiosurgery for treatment-refractory pituitary adenomas, providing the patient with a minimally invasive, safe, and effective treatment option for an otherwise resistant tumor. As such, we provide literature-based treatment considerations, including radiosurgical dose, endocrinologic, radiographic, and medical considerations for each adenoma type.

Embolization and radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations

Andres R. Plasencia, Alejandro Santillan

Date of publication: 26-Apr-2012

Abstract

The treatment of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) requires a multidisciplinary management including microsurgery, endovascular embolization, and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). This article reviews the recent advancements in the multimodality treatment of patients with AVMs using endovascular neurosurgery and SRS. We describe the natural history of AVMs and the role of endovascular and radiosurgical treatment as well as their interplay in the management of these complex vascular lesions. Also, we present some representative cases treated at our institution.

Deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus internus and Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: Toward multiple networks modulation

Christian Saleh, Victoria Gonzalez, Laura Cif, Philippe Coubes

Date of publication: 26-Apr-2012

Background:Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome (GTS) is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by disabling motor and vocal tics. The pathophysiology of GTS remains poorly understood. Conventional treatment consists in pharmacological and behavioral treatment. For patients suffering severe adverse effects or not responding to pharmacological treatment, deep brain stimulation (DBS) presents an alternative treatment. However, the optimal target choice in DBS for GTS remains a divisive issue.

Radiation mechanisms of pain control in classical trigeminal neuralgia

Alessandra Gorgulho

Date of publication: 14-Jan-2012

Abstract

Classical trigeminal neuralgia is a chronic pain condition that was clinically recognized centuries ago. Nevertheless, the pathological mechanism(s) involved in the development of classical trigeminal neuralgia is still largely based on the theory of peripheral versus central nervous system origin. Limitations of both hypotheses are discussed. Evidence of radiation effects in the electrical conduction of peripheral nerves is reviewed. Results of experimental studies using modern and current radiosurgery techniques and doses are also brought to discussion in an attempt to elucidate the radiation mechanisms involved in the conduction block of excessive sensory information triggering pain attacks. Clinical features and prognostic factors associated with pain control, recurrence, and facial numbness in patients submitted to surgical procedures for classical trigeminal neuralgia are discussed in the context of the features related to the pathogenesis of this condition. Studies focusing on the electrophysiology properties of partially demyelinated trigeminal nerves submitted to radiosurgery are vital to truly advance our current knowledge in the field.

Novel applications of deep brain stimulation

Tejas Sankar, Travis S. Tierney, Clement Hamani

Date of publication: 14-Jan-2012

Abstract

The success of deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery in treating medically refractory symptoms of some movement disorders has inspired further investigation into a wide variety of other treatment-resistant conditions. These range from disorders of gait, mood, and memory to problems as diverse as obesity, consciousness, and addiction. We review the emerging indications, rationale, and outcomes for some of the most promising new applications of DBS in the treatment of postural instability associated with Parkinson's disease, depression, obsessive–compulsive disorder, obesity, substance abuse, epilepsy, Alzheimer′s-type dementia, and traumatic brain injury. These studies reveal some of the excitement in a field at the edge of a rapidly expanding frontier. Much work still remains to be done on basic mechanism of DBS, optimal target and patient selection, and long-term durability of this technology in treating new indications.

Surgical Neurology International Stereotactic: Inaugural Editorial

Antonio De Salles

Date of publication: 14-Jan-2012